Scientific Research

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Also known as Du Zhong, Gutta-Percha, Rubber Bark Tree, Tochu
Do not confuse with Euonymus alatus or Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (sound similar)


All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information

Eucommia ulmoides is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been recommended for vitality enhancement and longevity. It is a collection of flavonoids (ones that are fairly common in the plant world) as well as both lignans and irioid compounds (both of which are not unique to this plant, but tend to be less common).

There is not a lot of human evidence on this plant at this moment in time except for one study noting reductions in blood pressure, but currently the animal evidence and mechanisms suggest that eucommia ulmoides could have a role in preventing bone loss, inducing fat loss, and reducing elevated blood pressure and triglycerides. At least one study suggests that the plant can augment steroid signalling without inherently being a strong agonist (applies to both androgens and estrogens), but this may apply to caprylic acid in general (which would then suggest that Coconut Oil is better at this role, due to providing much more caprylic acid).

It is not clear exactly how this plant burns fat or the molecules that mediate this effect, but currently the PPAR system is implicated and acute doses of the supplement have been confirmed to increase heat production in rats. The fat loss (or more acurately, anti-obese) effects of the plant in animal models is surprisingly potent among nutritional supplements.

This plant does have potential as a nutritional supplement as, unlike many other plants, it is active at relatively low oral dosages of 3,000mg or less (plant dry weight).

(Ref; Examiner – independent scientific reaerch site on alternative medicines)


Things To Know

Fat Mass and Obesity

6.1. Mechanisms

Mechanistically, it has been noted that ingestion of Eucommia ulmoides is associated with increases in protein content of some intermediates of energy metabolism (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, GLUT4, and H+ transporting mitochondrial F1 complex)[15] and in rat liver increases in the activity of genes involved in fat oxidation has been noted in the range of 1.21-1.88 fold (300-1,600mg/kg leaf extract intake)[38] which is thought to explain the increases in fat oxidation seen in the liver.[38][39][15] The increase was noted on the rate-limiting stages of β-oxidation (Cpt1a, Acox1, and Acadvl), α-Oxidation, and ω-oxidation (Cyp4a1).[38]

Differential effects have been noted on UCPs, with an increase in UCP3 seen in normal rats and an increase in UCP2 seen in high fat fed rats,[15] and PPARγ mRNA has been found to be increased.[15] The aforementioned genetic changes in liver enzymes also appear to be targets of PPARα and PPARδ, suggesting they may play a role.[38]

It is hypothesized that the above changes are due in part to geniposide and geniposidic acid as well as their aglycone (genipin) as they consist of most of the plant’s phytochemicals by weight[38] and since geniposide has shown lipid reducing properties in isolation.[40]

Eucommia ulmoides appears to modify the levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism and expenditure and in particular the uncoupling proteins (mediates heat production and ‘wastes’ energy), but the exact mechanism of action underlying these observations is not yet clear

A study in anaethesized rats given an intraduodenal injection of eucommia ulmoides (1-5mg or 4-20mg/kg) noted an increase in sympathetic nerve activity in both white and brown adipose tissue, and in concious rats there was an increase in plasma fatty acids (154.5-156.6% at 1-5mg of the leaf extract) and body temperature.[41]

An increase in heat expenditure following a single dose has been noted in rats, following fairly reasonable oral dosages as well

At least one study, in assessing its mechanisms on blood pressure, has found beta-blocking properties in human fat cells able to reduce the effects of isoproterenol.[29] This suggests that eucommia ulmoides can suppress the effects of fat burners that signal via these receptors, namely Ephedrine orSynephrine.

It’s beta-blocking potential, while beneficial to blood pressure, may antagonize the effects of other fat burner

Scientific Support & Reference Citations


  1.  Ong VY, Tan BK Novel phytoandrogens and lipidic augmenters from Eucommia ulmoides . BMC Complement Altern Med. (2007)
  2.  Kwon SH, et al Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells . J Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  3.  Yang J, et al Tochu (Eucommia ulmoides) leaf extract prevents ammonia and vitamin C deficiency induced gastric mucosal injury . Life Sci. (2003)
  4.  Nakazawa Y, et al Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver . Planta. (2013)
  5.  Bamba T, et al Contribution of mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways to polyisoprenoid biosynthesis in the rubber-producing plant Eucommia ulmoides oliver . Z Naturforsch C. (2010)
  6.  Chen R, et al Overexpression of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene to enhance trans-polyisoprene production in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver . BMC Biotechnol. (2012)
  7.  Liu E, et al Eucommia ulmoides bark protects against renal injury in cadmium-challenged rats . J Med Food. (2012)
  8.  Shi J, et al Structure identification and fermentation characteristics of pinoresinol diglucoside produced by Phomopsis sp. isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. (2012)
  9.  Shi SY, et al Combination of preparative HPLC and HSCCC methods to separate phosphodiesterase inhibitors from Eucommia ulmoides bark guided by ultrafiltration-based ligand screening . Anal Bioanal Chem. (2013)
  10.  Chai X, et al A rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ten compounds in Eucommia ulmodies Oliv . J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2012)
  11.  Dai X, et al Preparative isolation and purification of seven main antioxidants from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (Du-zhong) leaves using HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC experiment . Food Chem. (2013)
  12.  Zhang Q, Su Y, Zhang J Seasonal difference in antioxidant capacity and active compounds contents of Eucommia ulmoides oliver leaf . Molecules. (2013)
  13.  Zheng J, et al Enzymatic extraction and antibacterial activity of aucubin from Eucommia ulmoides leaves . Zhong Yao Cai. (2012)
  14.  Studies on the chemical constituents of green leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv
  15.  Fujikawa T, et al Chronic administration of Eucommia leaf stimulates metabolic function of rats across several organs . Br J Nutr. (2010)
  16.  Kim HY, et al Flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides O. with glycation inhibitory activity . J Ethnopharmacol. (2004)
  17.  Li H, Chen B, Yao S Application of ultrasonic technique for extracting chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies Oliv. (E. ulmodies) . Ultrason Sonochem. (2005)
  18.  Hong YK, et al Optimization of extraction of Eucommia ulmoides polysaccharides by response surface methodology .Carbohydr Polym. (2013)
  19.  Kim BH, Park KS, Chang IM Elucidation of anti-inflammatory potencies of Eucommia ulmoides bark and Plantago asiatica seeds . J Med Food. (2009)
  20.  Li H, et al Extraction of aucubin from seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. using supercritical carbon dioxide . J AOAC Int. (2009)
  21.  Xu W, et al A rapid and sensitive determination of aucubin in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic application . Biomed Chromatogr. (2012)
  22.  Wang JL, et al Validation of a HPLC-tandem MS/MS method for pharmacokinetics study of (+)-pinoresinol-di-β-D-glucopyranoside from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv extract in rats’ plasma . J Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  23.  Akao T, Kobashi K, Aburada M Enzymic studies on the animal and intestinal bacterial metabolism of geniposide . Biol Pharm Bull. (1994)
  24.  Inhibition of Adenosine 3′, 5′-Cyclic Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase by Lignan Glucosides of Eucommia Bark
  25.  Frew T, et al A multiwell assay for inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and the identification of natural product inhibitors .Anticancer Res. (1994)
  26.  Matter WF, Brown RF, Vlahos CJ The inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by quercetin and analogs . Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (1992)
  27.  Kwon SH, et al Neuroprotective effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced learning and memory impairments in mice . Neurosci Lett. (2011)
  28.  Zhou Y, et al Protective effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark and leaf on amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity . Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. (2009)
  29.  Greenway F, et al A clinical trial testing the safety and efficacy of a standardized Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark extract to treat hypertension . Altern Med Rev. (2011)
  30.  Kwan CY, et al Endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation induced by Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark extract is mediated by NO and EDHF in small vessels . Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (2004)
  31.  Kwan CY, et al Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects of the aqueous extracts of the Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf and bark: implications on their antihypertensive action . Vascul Pharmacol. (2003)
  32.  Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian Ginseng
  33.  Effect of Eucommia Leaf (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver; Du-Zhong yge) Extract on Blood Pressure
  34.  Jin X, et al Ameliorative effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves extract (ELE) on insulin resistance and abnormal perivascular innervation in fructose-drinking rats . J Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  35.  Luo LF, et al Antihypertensive effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. extracts in spontaneously hypertensive rats . J Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  36.  Lang C, et al Effect of Eucommia ulmoides on systolic blood pressure in the spontaneous hypertensive rat . Am J Chin Med. (2005)
  37.  He K, et al Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of selected traditional Chinese medicines in STZ-induced diabetic mice . J Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  38.  Kobayashi Y, et al Facilitative effects of Eucommia ulmoides on fatty acid oxidation in hypertriglyceridaemic rats . J Sci Food Agric. (2012)
  39.  Choi MS, et al Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) leaf extract mediates hypolipidemic action in hamsters fed a high-fat dietAm J Chin Med. (2008)
  40.  Wu SY, et al Effect of geniposide, a hypoglycemic glucoside, on hepatic regulating enzymes in diabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin . Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2009)
  41.  Horii Y, et al Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weightNeurosci Lett. (2010)
  42.  Hirata T, et al Anti-obesity compounds in green leaves of Eucommia ulmoides . Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2011)
  43.  Metori K, et al Effects of du-zhong leaf extract on serum and hepatic lipids in rats fed a high-fat diet . Biol Pharm Bull. (1994)
  44.  Zhang W, et al Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis and obesity in rats . Am J Chin Med. (2012)
  45.  Lin J, et al Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. antagonizes H2O2-induced rat osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 apoptosis by inhibiting expressions of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 9 . J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2011)
  46.  Ha H, et al Effects of Eucommiae Cortex on osteoblast-like cell proliferation and osteoclast inhibition . Arch Pharm Res. (2003)
  47.  Zhang R, et al Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) cortex extract prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats . Bone. (2009)
  48.  Kim MC, et al Eucommiae cortex inhibits TNF-α and IL-6 through the suppression of caspase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages . Am J Chin Med. (2012)
  49.  Davison SL, Bell R Androgen physiology . Semin Reprod Med. (2006)
  50.  Schaufele F, et al The structural basis of androgen receptor activation: intramolecular and intermolecular amino-carboxy interactions . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2005)
  51.  Harada M, et al Beneficial modification of functional renal parameters in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by nutraceutical. In view of a kidney-protective intervention . Acta Biomed. (2011)(Editors who contributed to this page include KurtisFrank )
  52. (Common misspellings for Eucommia ulmoides include ucommia, ecommia, eucomia, ucomia, ecomia, ulmodes, umoides)

(Common misspellings for Eucommia ulmoides include ucommia, ecommia, eucomia, ucomia, ecomia, ulmodes, umoides)
(Editors who contributed to this page include KurtisFrank )